Temperature control: All microorganisms have a defined temperature range in which they grow, with a minimum, maximum, and optimum. An understanding of the interplay between time, temperature, and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors is crucial to selecting the proper storage conditions for a food product.
Time control: When considering growth rates of microbial pathogens, in addition to temperature, time is a critical consideration. Food producers or manufacturers address the concept of time as it relates to microbial growth when a product’s shelf life is determined.
The Food Business shall develop and maintain the systems to ensure that time and temperature is controlled effectively where it is critical to the safety and suitability of food. Such control shall include time and temperature of receiving, processing, cooking, cooling, storage, packaging, distribution and food service up to the consumer, as applicable.
Whenever frozen food / raw materials are being used / handled / transported, proper care should be taken so that defrosted / thawed material shall not be stored back and after opening for future use.
Such systems shall also specify tolerance limits for time and temperature variations and the records thereof shall be maintained in a register for inspection.
Wherever cooking is done on open fire, proper outlets for smoke/steam etc. like chimney, exhaust fan etc. shall be provided.
Steam should be clean, dry and free from boiler carryover; which depends on boiler operations pressure and loading, water treatment management and efficient distribution; which influence the quality of steam.
Premixing & Mixing, Fermentation, Handling of Bulk Dough:
Dividing and Preparation of Individual Units:
Slicing/Packing of Bread and Confectionary Products:
Retail and Display:
What is the distinction between Packaging and Packing?
Packaging encompasses ‘packing’ and takes and integrated view of the Product requirement, Production needs, Marketing needs, Distribution Hazards and Customer satisfaction.
Packing simply involves stuffing or filling in the material and is one of the many aspects of Packaging.
What are the functions of packaging?
Protection: Packaging material shall provide adequate protection for all baked products to prevent contamination and damage.
The food contact material includes, all material which directly comes in contact with food like:
bakery process. Use of temperature display, recording devices are necessary and helpful for ovens
Yeast dissipation of the oven is important, insulated in case of wood fired oven or diesel fired so that smoke can be let out directly and the temperature in the manufacturing premises does not rise.
Proper cooling is essential after baking. The product should come to room temperature naturally before packaging. Improper cooling will lead to condensation in product after packaging and early spoilage due to microbial growth. Cooling should also be done in clean and cool air so as to avoid contamination of product.
Whenever water is used as a raw material, potable water only should be used of standards as laid down by the FSSAI and other international standards. Water pipelines of potable water and sewage should be separate and maintained for leakages to avoid contamination.
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